Documentation Rules and Citation Styles

When writing any kind of research paper, you must cite your sources (i.e., use documentation to identify the material drawn from your readings). This is a basic requirement of research writing and copyright law, to make sure that you give proper credit to your sources of information and do not pass off someone else's work as your own, intentionally or unintentionally. Failure to use proper documentation is considered plagiarism, a serious breach of academic honesty and a violation of U.S. law. The sections that follow immediately below provide a brief discussion of basic documentation rules and a list of useful URLs (Web addresses) for further information about citation styles used in various academic disciplines.


BASIC DOCUMENTATION RULES

  1. Direct (word-for-word) quotations from sources must be placed in quotation marks. If the quotation is very long (three lines or more), start it on a new line, indented from both left and right margins, and single spaced; quotation marks should not be used.


  2. Follow every quotation with a note in parentheses that, for print sources (whether hard copy or electronic copy), gives the last name of the author and the page number, separated by a comma. For example: (Smith, 142). If there is no author, use a short form of the title of the article, journal, or book.

    For interviews and personal communications, give the name of the person interviewed or from whom the communication was received, the medium (e.g., interview, telephone conversation, etc.), and the date. For example: (Smith, interview, 10 July 2003).

    For sources obtained from a Web page, cite the URL in angle brackets and the date when you accessed the Web page. For example: (<http://www.osha.gov/dts/osta/oshasoft/index.html> 10 Sept. 2002)


  3. A similar note should follow all indirect or paraphrased quotations, even though you do not use quotation marks. Your wording should clearly indicate what material is from the source.


  4. At the end of the paper, a bibliography (list of references or works cited) should list all the sources used in the paper.

    The entries of print sources are listed in alphabetical order by author (last name, first name) and include the title of the article (in quotes), the title of the book or journal (in italics), the publisher of the book, and the date of publication.

    The entries for Web page sources are listed in alphabetical order by author (last name, first name)—if known—or the title of the Web page—if the author is unknown—followed by an indication of whether the site is a home page, online posting, etc.; name of any institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; followed by the date when you accessed the site; and ending with the URL of the source in angle brackets. For example:
    "OSHA Announces Comprehensive Plan to Reduce Ergonomic Injuries." OSHA National News Release. USDL 02-201. U.S. Department of Labor. 10 Sept. 2002 <http://www.osha.gov/media/oshnews/apr02/national-20020405.html>.

INFORMATION ABOUT CITATION STYLES

For additional information about citation styles such as MLA and APA, see the following Web sites, which may refer to humanities style and scientific style, respectively.


Citation Styles in General

"Citation Styles" from the Web site for Andrew Harnack and Eugene Kleppinger, Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources (Bedford/St. Martins, 2003):

www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html


MLA and APA Documentation

The Writing Center at the University of Wisconsin–Madison:

http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/Documentation.html


Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL):

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html#Print

http://owl.english.purdue.edu/handouts/research/r_mla.html#Electronic


UC Berkeley Library:

http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/TeachingLib/ Guides/Internet/Style.html


The Center for Writing Studies, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign:

http://www.cws.illinois.edu/workshop/writers/citation/